Employees, Stores

There is a wealth of information about employees, the buying and selling of stores, and other aspects of life in the ledgers from various properties. Like the diaries and other material, the ledgers are in the Mitchell Library 1). Please remember that you can click on any image to enlarge it so making it clearer to read.

All remote property owners, like TLM-P, had to act as store keepers, having supplies of essential goods carted in to be used by the household but also on-sold to employees and travellers.

The following is a list of good which were kept at Hawkwood and the price at which they were sold. Unfortunately there is no record of the original cost of the goods nor of the considerable cost of transporting the goods.

While at Rosewood, TLM-P regularly purchased supplies from G.F. Bennet & Co. of Brisbane with the goods carted to the property by George Bennett. Bennett presumably had others to help with the necessary paperwork as he was illiterate, signing with his mark.2). In 1855, he did business with 'John Conolly store keeper Gayndar'. Gayndah is in the North Burnett region. Later at Maroon, many of the goods were purchased from G.H. Wilson of Ipswich. The following is one of the pages is an example:

The ledgers follow the social conventions re ethnicity and gender. Neither Indigenous workers nor the wife of an employed couple are named. When a couple was employed, the wage mentioned was for their combined labour. Interestingly, couples had a disadvantage in the labour market as their combined wage tended to be low compared to individual employees. Translated names clearly caused problems especially when it was likely those involved were not literate in English, and TLM-P probably only literate in English and French. If a fellow squatter was mentioned, he was referred to as 'Esq' (esquire).

The ledgers also showed the dependency of those who were able to select land on or near Maroon. Ezra Harvey was one such who appears heavily reliant on Maroon's stores as the following pages show:

This photo of a group of Aboriginal men (stockmen?) in the Murray-Prior papers (ML PXB661) has no attached information. It is a reminder of the huge gaps in our knowledge about the past, not the least from the Aboriginal viewpoint. The photo, faded and damaged as it is, gives context to TLM-P's criticism of depictions of 'Australians' and other indigenous groups at the Crystal Palace in England in 1882. He thought they were presented as 'miserable looking specimens' and 'very unlike those [Aboriginal people] I have seen'.3) When TLM-P dictated his memories of his early years in Queensland for Rosa, he included some translations and notes regarding indigenous language; some memories of Aboriginal employees; and the comments that, in his experience, Aboriginal Australians with exposure to white culture made good companions. It is unlikely, however, that he rose above his culture's assumption that they needed to adapt to British culture with little if any reciprocity.4)

One of the few references to Indigenous workers is in a later reminiscence for his daughter Rosa, when TLM-P recalled that one of his workers at Bromelton was an indigenous 'boy' he called Charlie, who stayed with him for years.5)

The ledger books that have survived from TLM-P's various properties indicate the lack of power and oppression experienced by Indigenous workers like 'Charlie'. It appears that they were not employed on a regular basis but rather paid on an occasional and casual basis, perhaps fitting in with their obligations as much as TLM-P's needs. Typically, Indigenous workers are not named (and certainly not given their Indigenous name) and any payments are very low. Hawkwood's ledger simply refers to 'Black Boys' giving no names. In Maroon's ledger for 1867-68, for example, an entry under Tom de M. M-P, simply notes that in May 1860 he paid 'Blackboy' 5 shillings.6) Similarly there is a reference in 1879 of one of the employed stockman paying 'Hughie Black Boy’ 17 shillings.7) Note that these payments were made in cash, the only option as it is unlikely a irregularly paid Indigenous worker would be able to open a bank account.

The same pattern is evident when the ledgers list goods sold. Some examples: a page from 1857 listing basic goods sold at Hawkwood's store (clothing and boots etc) lists individuals then simply what was sold to 'Black Boys'8). Note that calling Indigenous male employees 'boys' persisted well into the late twentieth century. Note too that this page also includes an entry for goods sold to someone just listed as 'Chinaman'. Another example is from Melcombe (later called Maroon's) store: white individuals are named (Timothy Daly, James Hooper, John Nalty, Harry McGarvy) then ‘John Black fellow’.9) Ethnicity was so important that, like class and gender, it had to be made obvious even in a mundane list of goods sold.

This pattern of collectively referring to 'blacks' was repeated in Rosa Praed's writings. In her Australian Life: Black and White (1885) she describes 'the Blacks… clearing the dead gum-trees' and their camp 'the other side of the creek', with old gunyahs, piccaninnies and card games around camp fires. She also recalls the 'the cracking of a black boy's stock whip' as well the sound of cows being brought in for milking and 'sheep's bells are tinkling'.

For more on TLM-P's Aboriginal workers, see Angela Woollacott, Settler Society in the Australian Colonies: Self-Government and Imperial Culture, pp.172-73. 10)

With labour scarce in the more isolated parts of Queensland, squatters like TLM-P supported schemes to employ cheap labour. They urged the renewal of convict transportation11) and encouraged migration of potential workers. The prevailing racism meant that Asian and Pacific Islander labourers could be treated more like slaves than employees.12)

Maxine Darnell has compiled a list of Chinese indentured labourers, those brought to Australia to work on a fixed contract. She points out that she has been able to identify only a minority of these men, and that one source - court records - means an over-representation of those who fell foul of the legal system. Her list was published in La Trobe University's Research Online13). TLM-P is listed as the employer of 17 Chinese men between December 1848 and May 1857 at Bugrooperia (Bromelton) and Hawkwood. For more information about these employees, click on Darnell list.

In addition to the 17 men on Darnell's list (perhaps because they were not indentured) the following were employed at Hawkwood and/or Bromelton. Note that only one name was given, presumably the surname:

  • 'Assee' (Afsee) employed as a shepherd from April 1854 for 6 months at £30pa [/-? check] which was then extended for an extra 7 weeks and 4 days. There was another extension at a slightly reduced payrate - to 27 October at 16/6 per week. His pay then was more than halved when he was employed as a hut-keeper for 22 weeks at 5/- a week (though it is possible that different rations were involved).
  • Chiang, one of the eight employees listed in 1857.
  • Tan See employed as a shepherd 14)

Three other employees were listed as 'coolies', now a highly pejorative word. Then it was also pejorative but commonly by Europeans used to indicate Asian indentured labourers:

  • Poki listed as '(Coolie) Shepherd' and employed on 16 October 1854 at 30/- per week. Poki is an (Hindu) Indian name. His last entry for buying stores was 17 January 1854. He was paid by the overseer Henry Davis. His employment prospects declined so that when he was re-employed in 1856, it was as a shepherd at 25/- a week.15) Angela Woollacott incorrectly claims he was listed as 'Poki Coolieman', and that the latter word was used as a surname rather than a description.16). Other non-British nationalities had their ethnicity similarly described, and the brackets (which she does not mention) makes it unlikely it was used as a surname.
  • Dhookee/Dho Ree was listed as 'Dhookee (Coolieman)' and employed as a shepherd at £35 pa from August 1856. If Dhookee is the correct rendition, then he was possibly from Mauritius, as that is where the surname is most common. The Hawkwood ledger entry 17) ends with a note that Dhookee 'lost 300 sheep going to Cocoa[?] which I did not know for 8 days and only found about 6 of the whole after searching for a fortnight. Dhookee became quite deranged and I had to send him to Gayndah from whence he was forwarded to Sydney.' It is uncertain why he was first sent to Gayndah, but it was then 'established practice' to transfer mentally ill people first to jail in Sydney then to the 'lunatic asylum'. Accordingly, Dhookee was sent to Darlinghurst Jail, examined by Dr George West on 18 December 1856 and declared insane, then taken to Tarban Creek Lunatic Asylum (later called Gladesville Hospital).18) Helen Patterson, co-author with Maureen Copley of Gladesville Hospital Cemetery, The Forgotten Cemetery - the Forgotten People (Ryde District Historical Society, 2023) made the connection between Dhookee and Dho Ree, also known as Rea Dhoo. Dho Ree was admitted to the Asylum in January 1857 and died on 27 June 1858 when he was 50 years old.19) His 'General Form of Commitment' states that Edward Fielding Palmer JP and others claimed that on 16 October 1856, Dho Ree was at Hawkwood and 'did assault one Do Ri with intent to murder him' and that he was a 'dangerous Lunatic and unsafe to be at large'.
  • Bundoo listed as a 'coolie'.20) This is an Indian surname.

As well, others listed were:

  • Appok who 'ran away' at shearing time.21)
  • Low Tien listed as a 'Chinaman' employed as a shepherd at £30 pa.22)

In all, 25 Chinese men were employed from 1848. It is possible that Do Ri, the man assaulted by Dhookee/Dho Ree was also an employee.

The following is a sample page from the Bugrooperia ledger for one of the indentured labourers on Maxine Darnell's list. In addition to his wages, it lists the stores Lye bought. These stores were all basic necessities (soap, mole[skin] trousers, boots, shirts, rice, blanket and a knife):

TLM-P started an account book (ledger) for his first station, Rosewood, on 23 June 1843 23). On its first page he recorded items he bought at a Brisbane sale on 23 June. These items include necessities such as fustian trousers, blankets, guns and knives, but also indicates that he aspired to gentility with silk handkerchiefs and two tablecloths.

One page of his accounts reveals the co-dependence of neighbouring squatters. The 2-page spread lists items borrowed and lent from and to other stations, particularly from a neighbour E.B. Uhr. As well, among his list of expenses for August 1843, TLM-P notes he paid Uhr £20 'for his run [land] at Laidley Creek'. This was Edmund Blucher Uhr who features in David Marr's chilling book, Killing For Country (Black Inc., 2023). The co-dependence does not mean lack of conflict. Another entry in the Rosewood accounts is a payment of £26 to settle a boundary dispute with Uhr.

Employees included current and former convicts as well as others:
1 Robert Scolis[?] was an assigned servant of J Bell Esq. but worked for TLM-P from April 1844.24) TLM-P increased his wage to £25 pa for ‘being a most excellent shepherd’.
2 John Moore had a ticket of leave and was employed as a general servant from 21 July 1843. His contract was for 12 months at £23pa.
3 Patrick Flannery was another former convict, 'free by servitude'. He was employed from 1 July 1843 as a shepherd at £26 pa but just for 3 months.
4 Thomas Moore (check p.16)
5 Edward Walker was also 'free by servitude'. On 1 July 1843, TLM-P hired him as a general servant for three months at 10/- per week for 3 months. Walker was then re-hired to shear sheep and kept on for a year less '2 days’. He was paid £43.13.1, but bought goods from TLM-P’s store so received £18.10.6½ as the balance of his wages. TLM-P noted that the “Agreement & wages cancelled by the Court.”
6 James Johnson was another 'free by servitude'. He was employed on 18 August 1843 as a general servant at 10/- per week but discharged on 1 Oct 1843. He had luxurious tastes as the stores he bought from TLM-P included 3 silk handkerchiefs. It is possible he was the same James Johnson who Tom de M. M-P paid by cheque £1 to in May 1868 for shoeing horses on Maroon.
7 Timothy Shea employed in February 1844 to take change of sheep at £104pa. He bought a large number of goods then was paid out 'to settle a dispute' in July 1845. A later entry (pp32-33) has him employed for 14 weeks and 1 day at £2 per week. Shea was an unsatisfactory employee though he was given a number of chances. TLM-P apparently deducted money from Shea's wages for not mixing flocks (£4); allowing rams to be with flock and presumably mucking up the breeding program (£5); and losing a Carbine rifle (£3.10.0).
8 John Townsend was hired on 4 May 1843 to use his own horse to ride to Moreton Bay to look after stock. He was paid £30pa but just for 3 months. He was later employed as a hutkeeper until 28 February 1844. The rate of pay is unclear, perhaps£9 per month. When he was on leave in 1844 he apparently decided he needed a new horse, but was convicted 'for horse stealing by Captain Wickham' who was the police magistrate at Moreton Bay. See ADB entry.
9 Dennis Kahill was hired on 23 December 1844 at £20 pa and later paid an extra 10/- for shepherding.
10,11 James Stanley and his wife. It was seen as worth noting that the couple were 'free' emigrants rather than former convicts. They arrived in Sydney possibly on 6 January [the date is hard to decipher] and at Rosewood on 1 October 1843. He was hired as a general servant and his wife as a laundress and hutkeeper at a combined wage of £20 pa. TLM-P agreed to pay their passage 'if they conduct themselves properly. One half to be deducted after 6 months the reminder at end of 12 months.' With such a low wage, it was difficult to save so in Sept 1844 TLM-P advanced them £7 to travel to Brisbane and for sundry expenses. Possibly this was the same James Stanley who was employed on Maroon in April 1865 as a stockman for £1 per week for 4 weeks, then re-engaged
12 Cornelius? Hughes hired as as shepherd, hutkeeper and stockman at £10 pa. This amount was doubled to £20 pa due to 'good conduct'.
13 Jeremiah? McCarthy hired as general servant and possibly shepherd (the word is unclear) on 10 August 1843 at £18 pa. He was discharged in January 1844.
14 Florence McCarthy hired as general servant on 23 October 1842 for 2 years at £20 pa. This period was reduced to 1 year then in January 1844 she was discharged.
15 John Clarke in an unknown capacity from 10 December 1844 with wages of £25 pa. [check is this entry for Bromelton? p.31]

A Ledger for Bugrooperia station, Logan River, Queensland, May 1848-184925) lists his employees. His male European employees were generally paid much more and more precisely identified than Indigenous, Asian or female employees. Note that, as with the other ledgers, the names are often hard to decipher. Though there is little evidence of personal expenses or his domestic life in these ledgers, he had married in 1846. His first son was born in January 1848 and his second son August 1849 (dying 5 months later).

1 J. Richardson employed from 25 April 1848 to at least 4 December 1848 (p.1);
2 Thomas Kirshaw(?), general servant for 4 weeks at 10/- a week (p.6);
3 George Twyford, general servant from 13 August 1848 at £30 pa but agreement cancelled 26 September by mutual consent (p.6);
4 William Rivet(?), a 'Scotsman', employed at £30 pa (p.6);
5 Charles Prior (did the surname cause confusion?) employed as a house servant at £30 pa - he was paid in advance to cover the cost of him getting a steamer from Sydney to Brisbane (p.7);
6 Samuel Crew employed as a builder and servant at £30 pa and double rations. He was paid for 3 weeks during which time he was to build his own hut to live in;
7 Mrs Price paid £12 pa to do washing;
8 Patrick C. Sullivan employed as a builder and servant in 1848 for three months at 12/- week;
9 Dennis (no other name given) employed at £20 pa in August 1849.
10 Tinko 1848, see above under Chinese indentured labourers (Darnell list)
11 Eunti 1848, see above under Chinese indentured labourers (Darnell list)

The ledger also shows that he paid accounts to T.S. Mort (e.g. p.2); dairymen Harris & Price (providing butter, cheese etc (e.g. p.2); sold cattle to John McDougal (p.8); and had various transactions with his brother-in-law William Barker (e.g. p.8) as well as J. McConnel Esq; Benjamin Samuda; E. Walker & Jones; A.W. Compeigne. Travellers bought stores from him including D. Graham and Francis Clarke Kerry(?) of nearby Albert River, as well as Watson & Worley, possibly sawyers (loggers). He also owned a one third share of cattle with Captain Collins, worth £46.9.6.

The ledger for Bromelton station, Logan River, Queensland, 1850-185126) gives the following employees. [to check dates]
1 James Wilson, paid £40 pa
2 Kinbracker(?) and wife, £40 pa (combined wage)
3 Eza(?) Woolfadl(?) paid at least some of the costs to emigrate then to work for him including £6.10.0 'passage'
4 Andreas Schmid paid £30.10.0 for 'passage'
5 Achow see above under Chinese indentured labourers (Darnell list)
6 Tan See see above under Chinese indentured labourers
7 Bundoo see above under Chinese indentured labourers
8 Lye see above under Chinese indentured labourers (Darnell list)
9 Boon see above under Chinese indentured labourers (Darnell list)
10 C.C. Davies The entry is unclear but he was the likely person employed at £50 pa.

These employees at in an unnamed ledger.27) It can be identified as that of Bromelton because of the dates. The employees are:

1 Robert Bradbury, December 1852 received stores and wages.
2 John Wright hired as a hutkeeper January 1853
3 Martin Fletcher
4 James Todd
5 Mrs Todd was on the same page as James but was given a separate entry presumably meaning they were not employed as a couple. There is a later note 28) of 6 shillings paid for emigrants.
6 John Murray
7 Peter Mullens hired November 1854 for 20 shillings a week
8 John Wright
9 John Groves
10 John Parkinson
11 Afsee see above under Chinese indentured labourers
12 Edward Hughes

Bromelton's ledger merges in one for Hawkwood although exactly when it changes is unclear [to check]. As usual the ledger also records other transactions, such as buying cattle from James Glennie Esq in 1857. There is also a list of stores purchased in 1855 with a note that the account was settled when Mr Chauvel left Hawkwood.29) The index page lists him as A.B.J. Chauvel. The Chauvels had a property Tabulam on the Clarence River in northern NSW - see Tabulam. Charles H. Chauvel from 1883 he lived at Canning Downs South in Queensland and at some unknown stage became 'well-known as a breeder of pure Shorthorns'.30) TTLM-P's later property Maroon also became known for its shorthorns.

1 John Martin
2 Spencer Lambert
3 W.M. Horton
4,5 John Miller and wife, employed for 2 years at £60 pa later reduced to £50 pa. Given they were a couple, this reduction may not have been to unsatisfactory work but for other reasons such as they having a baby which would meant less capacity for her to do employed work.31) There are multiple entries for John Miller suggesting his role changed.
6 Robinson
7 Samuel (Sam) Crewe includes note of emigrants expenses for £12.19.0 (was this the same Samuel Crewe who was employed as a builder at Bugrooperia station? - see entry 6 above)
8 Robert Kemp including being paid for 'breaking in horses at £3 per head'
9 William Miller
10 Mrs Nolan - entry down page with heading 'Martin & Nolan'. [check if she was employee]
11 Thomas Collins
12 Robert Hughes
13 Edward Priess?
14 William Francis
15 John Hooper engaged for 12 months at £40 pa
16 Ferris employed horse breaking
17 John Goose
18 Dhookee/Dho Ree see above under Chinese indentured labourers.
[check dates when Hawkwood ledger finishes]

The next ledger is also for Hawkwood station.32) There is also a list of the shearers employed in 1855 (check which ledger. including John Black who sheared 1600 sheep), 1856 and 1857. C. Daly and A. Rucker were contracted in 1856 and 1857 to build a kitchen with a shingle roof as well as 3 shepherd huts with two rooms 10×6 feet each, door and window. Not all employees are listed, but the following were:

1 Alexander (Alex) Brown employed as overseer in 1856, paid £50 pa, later increased to £70 pa;
2 Shingleton employed as a general servant at £40 pa;
3,4 Andreas Schmidt and his wife, general servants, paid £40 pa;
5 A. Yager (German) employed as shepherd and watch, paid £50 pa;
6 Boon see above under Chinese indentured labourers (Darnell list)
7 Dhookee see above under Chinese indentured labourers
8 Appok see above under Chinese indentured labourers
9 Hock see above under Chinese indentured labourers (Darnell list)
10 Low Tien see above under Chinese indentured labourers
11,12 George Jacobsen and wife employed as cook and general servant at £50 pa.
13 Gaydens who was listed as German
14 Henry Davies overseer from 1854.
15 Henry Bulgin was listed with the honorific 'Mr'. He was employed at £35 pa but it was not specified in what capacity.
16 James Welsh(?) employed from February 1855 for 6 months at £55 pa. The index refers to him as a bullock driver.

As noted above,Hawkwood's ledger simply refers to 'Black Boys' giving no names[check - payment or stores? pp.146-47].
In his private journal for 1858-6033), TLM-P noted three other employees:
1 Jemima Fraser hired on 17 September 1858 as a nurse at £25 pa with a months' notice required. A nurse was needed as he and Matilda at that stage had six surviving children the eldest of whom was 10 years old. As well, Matilda would give birth the following month.
2 Munday. TLM-P wrote [check - in his 1858 diary?] that Munday 'came up to Hawkwood with a mob of cattle and worked well whilst he was at it and herded at the Cattle Station for a short time, but hearing some thing about his wife he went away and thinking him sufficiently punished I gave his discharge.'
3 Ernest Davies who worked as a jackeroo; his brother Henry Davies was the overseer.

These were two fairly short-lived ventures (respectively mainly a banana and sugar plantation) and it is not clear which employees at these properties - or if they worked for him in another capacity. [To do: check dates where possible]

1 Ezra Harvey who appears to be hired to do fencing; In subsequent ledgers, he buys stores (1861-62, 1864) and is described as a Free Selector. In May 1866 he was paid £10 'On account of Hay claimed by him at Maroon'.
2 Marianne Miller hired January 1858 at £25 pa
3 Joseph Wilson(?)
4 William Cox
5 Shephen Englan
6 William Allen
7 George Collins
8 John Williams
9 Thomas Martin
10 William Williamson
11 John Hooper employed for 12 months at £40 pa. He was possibly also employed at Maroon if he was mistakenly listed as John rather than James(see below)
12 George ?Sweetland Esq [check if employed]
13 Charles (no other name given)

While TLM-P relied heavily on indentured labour, there is no evidence in these ledgers that Pacific Islanders worked on his sugar plantation. They were often brought - mostly forcibly or under false pretences - to work on such plantations under conditions which justifies the term slavery. The first mention of 'Islanders' in the ledgers is in October 1867 when a payment of 17/- was made to 'Moodie for expenses Islanders'. The next entry found for 'South Sea Islanders' is in 1870.

In Rosa Praed's memoir Australian Life: Black and White (1885) she refers to 'Peter the Kanaka' and states that 'We had several islanders at Bungroopim'. While this name was close to one of the earlier names for Bromelton, her memories did not come from this property given she was two years old when she left. In her book she denied that they had 'been forcibly abducted from their homes' on the grounds that, from her privileged position, they 'seemed happy and comfortable and one or two begged that they might remain after the three years which constituted their term of slavery had expired. They were employed around the head station, never learning to ride, but fetching wood and water, and doing such domestic work as the soul of the Australian aboriginal abhors'.

These ledgers start on 16 August 1864. They (especially the head station Maroon) are quite intensive and include information about stores, employees and stock (musters of cattle and horses, list of brands etc) and the large amount of fencing undertaken (including on Tununbah). There are also lists of stores bought from G. H Wilson & Co of Ipswich, an account with Hugh Campbell a blacksmith at Ipswich, and various business transactions with neighbouring stations.34)

Employees/contractors mentioned:
1 Henry (Harry) McGeary Stockman had been employed by the Bank of Australasia when it took over the property at 26/6 per month until 11 March 1865. He was re-employed as a stockman in June 1865. By January 1866 he was employed as a stockman at £1 per week.
2 John Harley In September-October 1864, employed for 4 weeks & 3 days at 20/- per week.
3 George Allumett(?) In September-October 1864, employed for 4 weeks & 3 days at 20/- per week.
4 James Cox & wife engaged at £70 pa in February 1865; their employment as general servants is again noted in May 1865 and later.
5 James Hooper employed to work at the Head of Logan station to 11 March 1865, ie. 11 weeks at £1 per week, then employed again in May 1865 as a general servant at £1 per week. In March 1869 he had the same wage with one month’s notice required. He regularly earned extra by breaking in horses for Maroon at a rate of £1 per horse and also was paid expenses for carting goods and people to and from Brisbane in a dray. e.g. May, October 1866. In May 1866 there was a cheque written for a 'working bullock' with Hooper's brother.
6 John (Jack) Nalty employed for Head of Logan station to 3 March 1865, ie 13 weeks at 10/-per month. In April 1865 he was employed as a stockman 15/- per week; in June 1865 he was a general servant at 15/- per week. He is also mentioned in Maroon's ledger in 1870, dropping off stores to Coochin Coochin.
7 De Burgh Persse employed 12 March 1865 at salary of £40(?) pa
8 W.H. Traill was as manager/overseer at £100 pa.
9 Mr John Haygarth's 6/- expenses in Brisbane were paid. Note the others were not given honorifics though fellow squatters were listed as 'Esq'. Around 1866, he had a stores account at Maroon.
10 William Bothamley(?) employed at 8/- week. He is listed under cheques drawn by Tom de M. M-P in January 1868 with wages due of £4.
11 James Ryan employed as 'extra hand' at £1 per week
12 John McLiver employed on September 1866 as a general servant at £30 pa, then in 1867 as a general servant at £40 pa
13 William Neil cheque for £2.3.0. as employed mustering for 2.5 weeks in October 1866
14,15 Henry Kann and wife employed as general servant and washerwoman at £45 pa. They arrived at Maroon on 19 November 1866. They had their fares paid to travel to Brisbane by steamer, plus were given an extra allowance of £1 for doing the washing. Their wage was adjusted to £50 pa with a month's notice required to leave. In 1867 he was paid at the rate of £45 pa for 47 days though just what he expected to do during this time was not stated.
16 Arthur Regan(?) employed as horse breaker in 1868 17 J Lovell hired as 'extra hand for herding cattle bought from Bylands' in 1867
18 Paddy (no other name given) was hired at 15/- per week in March 1868. Later he was allowed an extra guineas for handling horses. He is listed under cheques drawn by Tom de M. M-P on 1 August and December 1868 for wages (£5,£3,£2.17.6 plus £6 cheque with explanation''Overdrawn account'.
19 William Ferguson employed as a fencer to erect fencing on Maroon
20,21 Henry Appel and wife hired at £50 pa in September 1867 with him signing for their wages. He is listed under cheques drawn by Tom de M. M-P in January 1868 for wages of £8.
22 John Moore employed as carpenter
23 William Ferguson hired January 1868 at £1 per week
24 A.R Miller check if employee or just bought stores.
25 Herbert Adcock employed at £40 pa from September 1868.
26 John Jackson employed as a fencer
27 Richard Lock employed as a fencer in 1869-70, with an initial payment of £37.0.6
28 Brown stockman employed in 1869 at £40 pa [check year]
29 Henry Van Homerigh was employed February 1860 at £50 pa. Horses were sent north with him and sold. The 1866 ledger's list of cheques shows in May 1866 he received a £9 salary; in December £5.10.0 including £1 expenses, for 'herding' for 4.5 weeks.
30,31 Lawler & wife began work at £50 pa in March 1870. There is a note that it includes £3 for Mrs Lawler’s Xmas box [present]. In 1871 their wage was given as £50 pa 1871 and he signed for it with X his mark (indicating he was illiterate)
32, 33 South Sea Islanders How many is unknown as the entry doesn't provide any names, simply listing 2 cheques totally £3.10 in May 1870.35)
34 Morres M-P, TLM-P's 2nd eldest surviving son, was paid £30 pa by July 1870. Morres was then 17 years old.
35 Tom de M M-P, TLM-P's eldest son, was employed as Maroon's manager on 1 January 1866 just before his 18th birthday. He was paid an 'allowance' of £50 pa for his first year but his allowance for first 6 months in 1867 was halved to £25 pa. He was paid £80 pa from September 1867.36)
36 Frank Pascoe & H. Felder employed to erect 387 rods (almost 2km) of fences at Maroon in July-November 1870 for £58.1.0
37 Fielder, described as an ‘Old man’ was paid at 10/- week, one of ‘extra men paid at odd times’.37)
38 Herbert Bishop, described as a 'new chum' (i.e. newly emigrated from Britain with little to no bush skills) was another of the ‘extra men paid at odd times’ who was paid at 10/- week.38)
39 Richard Evans employed from October 1871 at 15/- week
40,41 George Cuckoa? & wife employed from October 1871 at £55 pa
42 Marianne Miller employed from January 1872 at £25 pa
43 James Rian is listed under cheques drawn by Tom de M. M-P in February 1868 with wage paid of £4.13.6.
44 A. Baan is listed under cheque drawn by Tom de M. M-P in February 1868 for breaking in horses, first for £2 then for a £12.7.0.

The following information is from a different and tatty-looking ledger though the dates appear to overlap. The cover is shown here: 39) There is the usual amount of information including details of employees, dealings with other stations and payments made to local businesses. Blacksmiths were vital and a number used, e.g Mr James Toohey, in April 1866; Messrs W.A. Mclean in August 1866 and Hugh Campbell in October 1866.)\

1 James Harper (check if employee or stores)
2 Mary Ronan, nurse employed from 19 December 1866 to 8 August 1867 at £22 pa. The term 'nurse' was used loosely and it is possible that Mary Ronan was employed as a nursemaid to look after the younger children.
3 George Hunter and wife employed in 1865 as general servants and hutkeeper at £60 pa. He was still employed in April 1866.
4 William Farmer employed in August 1866 as general servant at at £30 pa.
5 Charles Hervey [or Hervey] in April 1866 paid £3.16.0 balance of his wages; in August 1866 paid £4.16.0 as an extra for odd jobs for 5 weeks.
6 Hunter employed as an extra for odd jobs on 30 July 1866 and paid £1 per week. James Hunter who was paid a £4.9.12 wages cheque in September [1866?].
7 Robert Mason employed as a mason(?) and general servant on 29 September 1866 to 2 January 1867 at £1 per week.
8 Patrick Bowen employed from 22 December 1866 at £30 pa.
9,10 John Moore & Co. was employed at 30/- week for 6 weeks and 2 days from April 1867 to build 'two privies and setting the stable upright, bracing the main building and otherwise repairing. Putting up outside verandah to kitchen building and making steps. Pulling down old kitchen and sundry small jobs.' The building involved the use of both cedar and shingles. It is unlikely he was the same John Moore who was a former convict employed at Rosewood in 1844 (see above). Andrew [no surname] was paid 25/- a week, working with Moore on the building. Sawyers (Wagstaff & Mate) were also employed on this and other work.
11 John Bunnett described as a boy whose job it was to herd cattle 'etc'. He was employed in 1866 for 5 months at £16 pa. His work increased in difficulty for a time as he was paid 2/6 per week extra for 8 weeks. That he was young is further indicated in note that his £2 wages cheque in August [1866?] was paid to his father. In December 1866 he was paid £1 extra for unspecified services.
12 Mrs Shapcott employed as a nurse for 15 weeks from 23 September 1866 to 7 January 1867, paid £16 plus £2 for her expense travelling from Brisbane. The cheque list for January 1867 indicates that she was paid at a higher rate (£5) for the first month. The dates indicate that she was the midwife/monthly nurse for the birth of Egerton, Matilda's last child, who was born a month after Mrs Shapcott began work. It is not known if she had any connection with Mr T. Shapcott who was paid £8.7.0 in April 1866 and £7.9.0 in October [1866], both for 'Boots and shoes for children. Bill to date.'
13 William Kidd employed as a general servant in April 1866 at £60 pa.
14 John Balaam & Dawson, fencers, contractor to put 2-rail fences on Tunanbah and paid £87.15.3 including an extra 3d per rod (a rod is around 5 metres) because 'Fences being first class'. The cheques lists indicate they were used for other fencing work after that.
15 William Fergusson, fencer.
16 Elizabeth Thorne, employed as Cook from July 1866 to 1867 at £30 pa. She and other servants were paid an additional £2 due to extra work while the local races were on (13 April 1867).
17 Sarah Miller employed as Housemaid at Maroon from April 1866 at £25 pa. Like Thorne (above), she was paid an additional £2 due to extra work while the local races were on (13 April 1867).
18 William Porter, stockman initially employed to break in horses at 30/- per horse plus rations. Later employed as a stockman at £45 pa. His salary cheque for £3 is listed in November 1867.
19 Mrs Wagstaff paid by cheque in August 1867 and other times for washing. It is possible she offered her services when her sawyer husband of Wagstaff & Mate (later Wagstaff & March) was working on the property.
20 Maria Murphy is listed under cheques drawn by Tom de M. M-P in September 1867 'on account of wages' of £3. In November 1867 she is described as a 'nurse' and paid £7 as the 'balance of wages due'.
21 James Lovell is listed under cheques drawn by Tom de M. M-P in September and November 1867 'on account of wages due' of £5.17.0.
22 G. Alford is listed under cheques drawn by Tom de M. M-P in January 1868 'on account of wages due' of £3.
23 Joseph Cook paid by cheque £3.10.0 'clearing Bathurst Burr Sandy Creek property' in May 1866. Bathurst burr is an invasive weed with burrs that reduce the value of wool. He was listed with the honorific Mr. Sandy_Creek,_Queensland is around 100 km north-north-west of Brisbane.
24 Alice White was given a £3 cheque in October 1867 for 'advance wages'. In January 1868 she was paid £2 as a housemaid.
25 Thomas Coulson is paid £1 by Tom de M. M-P's cheque for 'salary' in November 1867.
26 Eliza Monaghan cook for their Brisbane home Montpelier, cheque in November 1867 for £2.18.0, balance of her wage.
27 Yacca was paid £1.4.0 by cheque in November 1867 for '6 days in garden' and £1 in December with note that he was to be paid 4/- the next week. In January 1868 he was paid £1 each time for a week's work in Montpelier's garden. It is likely the garden referred to in all the entries was Montpelier's.
28 William Bottomly was paid £5 by cheque in December 1867 for wages at Maroon.
29 Miss Arabin is in the cheque list for February 1868, probably as the housekeeper at Montpelier.
30 Catherine Hunt was paid by cheque in February 1868, employed as a cook then too, probably also at Montpelier given the other entries were for there.
31 Mrs Thompson was paid in March 1868, £1.4.8 by cheque for a week's washing - there is no mention whether it's at Maroon or Montpelier.

Not finished. To date 190 names of employees/contractors (some to check)

MLMSS 3117
TLM-P, Diary, 29 June 1882, ML.
Andrew Darbyshire, A Fair Slice of St Lucia. Thomas Lodge Murray-Prior, St Lucia History Group research paper no. 8, p.98 citing Rosa Praed papers, Box 3, 8370, packet 3/1/1/.
Andrew Darbyshire, A Fair Slice of St Lucia. Thomas Lodge Murray-Prior, St Lucia History Group research paper no.8, p.98 citing Rosa Praed papers, Box 3, 8370, packet 3/1/1/.
6) , 9)
MLMSS 3117/box 8
MLMSS 3117 Box 10, Item 2, pp.6-7
MLMSS 3117/box7x
Helen Gregory, 'Squatters, selectors and - dare I say it - speculators', Journal of the Royal Historical Society of Queensland, XI:4, 1983, p.83.
Ray Kerkhove and Frank Uhr, The Battle of One Tree Hill, Boolarong Press, Tingalpa (Qld), 2019, p.191
decommissioned in April 2023
14) , 20) , 21) , 22)
MLMSS3117/Box 7X
MLMSS 3117/Box 6, item 5 Ledger
Angela Woollacott, 'Manly authority, employing non-white labour, and frontier violence 1830s-1860s',Journal of Australian Colonial History, 2013, p.39
MLMSS3117/box 7X
The NSW State Archives' Colonial Secretary: Index to Letters Received, 1826-96, the Joan Reese Index
MLMSS3117/box 6/item 4. Though it is catalogued as from 24 June, the first entry is for the 23rd
list of cheques
MLMSS 3117/Box 6/Item 5
MLMSS 3117/Box 7X. The back of this ledger was used by TLM-P as his private journal, 1858-1860
MLMSS3117/Box 8
MLMSS 3117/Box 8
The Brisbane Courier, 18 May 1896, p.4
there were 2 births registered in Ipswich in 1857 with John Miller as the father; one had Jessie as the mother and the other had Marion as the mother.
32) , 33)
MLMSS 3117/Box 7X
MLMSS Box 8 and 9
see also pp.326-27
37) , 38)
MLMSS3117/Box 9
  • employees_stores.txt
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